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·         The Supreme Court gave its decision on the Association government's 2019 move to alter Article 370 of the Constitution. The revocation had finished the exceptional status presented to the past province of Jammu and Kashmir. The court held the Protected request that disavowed Article 370 as legitimate.

What is the New Judgment of the supreme Court?

Jammu and Kashmir didn't Have Sway:

·         SC saw that there is a lot of proof in Article 370 and the J&K Constitution to show that concerning Kashmir, a consolidation understanding was not important to give up its power.

·         Article 370(1) applied Article 1 of the Constitution of India (where J&K was recorded as a Section III State) without any changes.

·         Section 3 of the J&K Constitution unequivocally expresses that "the Territory of Jammu and Kashmir is and will be a fundamental piece of the Association of India."

·         Segment 147 of the Indian constitution precluded any alterations to section 3, further making the arrangement outright.

·         In this manner, Court said that the Constitution of India, "turned into the preeminent overseeing report of the land." Further, the Introduction to the J&K Constitution shows a "unmistakable shortfall of… a reference to power."

Article 370 is a Brief Arrangement:

·         The SC depended on the way that the Constitution designers put Article 370 with the impermanent and momentary arrangements contained To some extent XXI.

·         Then, it brought up that the Instrument of accession (IoA) made it "crystal clear" that Article 1 which expressed that "India that is Bharat will be an Association of States" applied completely to J&K.

·         Protected Legitimacy of Announcements Subject to President's Authority:

·         SC's Seat agreed that the President has the ability to make "irreversible changes, including the disintegration of the State Gathering," and that the President's powers are held under wraps by "legal and sacred investigation."

The Constitution of J&K Stands Out of commission:

·         Court held that it is as of now excessive for the Constitution of J&K through which just certain arrangements of the Indian Constitution applied to J&K, to exist.

·         The implied however fundamental result of the use of the Constitution of India completely to the Province of Jammu and Kashmir is that the Constitution of the State is broken.

Set up a Reality and Compromise Commission to Address Common freedoms:

·         The SC suggested that the Association set up a "truth and compromise Commission" very much like South Africa presented politically-sanctioned racial segregation on explore common liberties infringement by both state and non-state entertainers. The activity ought to be time-bound.

What was the Unique Status of J&K?


·         On fifth August 2019, the Leader of India in the activity of the powers gave by Article 370(1) of the Constitution gave the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Request, 2019.

·         Through this, the Public authority of India has made adjustments to Article 370 itself (not renounced it).

·         With this, the Public authority of India has decisively adjusted the connection between the territory of Jammu and Kashmir and the Indian Association.


·         The National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) has signed a Memorandum of Common Purpose (MoCP) with the Mississippi River Cities and Towns Initiative (MRCTI).

·         MRCTI represents 124 cities/towns situated along the banks of the Mississippi River, in the United States.

·         The NMCG has signed the MoCP on behalf of the River Cities Alliance (RCA). The signing ceremony took place as part of the COP28, in Dubai.

What is the Mississippi River Cities and Towns Initiative (MRCTI)?

·         The MRCTI was created in 2012 to provide an influential voice for the Mississippi River, dramatically increasing demand for effective river protection, restoration, and management in Washington, DC.

·         It addresses matters of mutual concern, including river water quality and habitat restoration, flooding and floodplain issues, river-focused recreation, sustainable economies, and celebration of the River culture and history.

What is River Cities Alliance (RCA)?


·         The RCA is a joint initiative of the Ministry of Jal Shakti (MoJS) & the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA), with a vision to connect river cities and focus on sustainable river centric development.

·         The Alliance focuses on three broad themes- Networking, Capacity Building and Technical Support.

·         Beginning with 30 member cities in November 2021, the Alliance has expanded to 110 river cities across India and one international member city from Denmark.


·         The RCA intends to facilitate knowledge exchange (online) for Indian cities to learn new practices and approaches for urban river management.

·         It will also be an opportunity for international cities to learn about experiences in Indian cities, which may be relevant to their contexts.

What is the National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG)?


·         On 12th August 2011, the NMCG was listed as a society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860.

·         It acted as the implementation arm of the National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) which was constituted under the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act (EPA),1986.

·         NGRBA was dissolved in 2016 and replaced by the National Council for Rejuvenation, Protection, and Management of River Ganga.

·         The objective of the NMCG is to reduce pollution and ensure the rejuvenation of the Ganga River.

·         Namami Gange is one of the Coveted Programmes of NMCG to clean Ganga.

·         This can be achieved by promoting intersectoral coordination for comprehensive planning & management and maintaining minimum ecological flow in the river, with the aim of ensuring water quality and environmentally sustainable development.

Organization Structure:

·         The Act envisages a five-tier structure at the national, state, and district levels to take measures for prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution in river Ganga as below:

·         National Ganga Council under the chairmanship of the Hon’ble Prime Minister of India.

·         Empowered Task Force (ETF) on river Ganga under the chairmanship of Hon’ble Union Minister of Jal Shakti (Department of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation).

What are the Other Initiatives for River Rejuvenation in India?

·         Ganga Action Plan: It was the first River Action Plan that was taken up by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change in 1985, to improve the water quality by the interception, diversion, and treatment of domestic sewage.

·         The National River Conservation Plan is an extension to the Ganga Action Plan. It aims at cleaning the Ganga River under the Ganga Action Plan phase 2.

·         National Water Mission (2010): It ensures integrated water resource management leading to water conservation, less wastage, and equitable distribution forming better policies.

·         Clean Ganga Fund: In 2014, it was formed to clean up the Ganga, set up waste treatment plants, and conserve of biotic diversity of the river.

·         Bhuvan-Ganga Web App: It ensures the involvement of the public in monitoring of pollution entering into the river Ganga.

·         Ban on Waste Disposal: In 2017, the National Green Tribunal banned the disposal of any waste in the Ganga.


·         The ministry of Jal Shakti has revealed insight into the advancement of the Jal Jeevan Mission and the Arsenic and Metal Evacuation by Indian Innovation (AMRIT).

What is AMRIT Innovation?

·         The innovation was created by the Indian Organization of Innovation (IIT) - Madras. It is intended for the expulsion of arsenic and metal particles from water, tending to water quality issues.

·         The innovation uses nano-scale iron oxy-hydroxide, which specifically eliminates arsenic when water goes through it.

·         AMRIT is appropriate for both homegrown and local area level water filtration.

·         The innovation lines up with the more extensive objectives of the Jal Jeevan Mission, which means to give protected and consumable faucet water to provincial families in India.

·         The innovation has been suggested by the 'Standing Council' of the Branch of Drinking Water and Disinfection for thought in tending to water and sterilization challenges.


·         Arsenic is a characteristic part of the world's outside and is broadly circulated all through the climate in the air, water and land. It is profoundly harmful in its inorganic structure.

·         Long haul openness to arsenic from drinking water and food can cause disease and skin injuries. Ongoing harming of arsenic can cause Blackfoot illness (BFD), which influences the veins in the lower appendages.

What is the Jal Jeevan Mission?


·         Jal Jeevan Mission, sent off in 2019, is imagined to give protected and sufficient drinking water through individual family tap associations by 2024 to all families in country India by Practical Improvement Objective 6 (Clean Water and Sterilization for all).

·         It imagines an inventory of 55 liters of water for each individual each day to each provincial family through Useful Family Tap Associations (FHTC) by 2024.

·         The Public authority of India likewise sent off the Jal Jeevan Mission (Metropolitan) which has been intended to give general inclusion of water supply through utilitarian taps in every one of the 4,378 legal towns of India.


·         Researchers effectively brought the Impetus Module (PM) of the Chandrayaan-3 mission, which brought the Vikram lander inside 100 km of the Moon's surface prior to disengaging.

·         This memorable occasion included a controlled plunge to the lunar surface and an effective re-visitation of Earth circle.

What is Mission Chandrayan?

·         India has sent off a sum of three Chandrayaan Missions i.e., Chandrayan-1, Chandrayaan-2 and Chandrayan-3.


·         India's most memorable mission to the Moon was Chandrayaan-1 sent off effectively in 2008. Orbitting the Moon and mention objective facts with instruments on board was planned.

Key Discoveries of Chandrayaan-1:

·         Affirmed presence of lunar water.

·         Proof of lunar caverns framed by an old lunar magma stream.

·         Past structural action was viewed as on the lunar surface.

·         The shortcomings and cracks found could be highlights of past inside structural movement combined with shooting star influences.


·         Chandrayaan-2 is a coordinated 3-in-1 rocket comprising of an orbiter of the Moon, Vikram (after Vikram Sarabhai) the lander and Pragyan (astuteness) the wanderer, all outfitted with logical instruments to concentrate on the moon.

·         Launched: 22th July 2019

·         Lander Vikram: It stays fixed in the wake of landing, and chiefly concentrates on the moon's climate and seismic movement.

·         Meanderer Pragyan: The Wanderer, a six-wheeled sun oriented fueled vehicle, isolates itself and gradually creeps on a superficial level, mentioning objective facts and gathering information.

·         Chandrayaan-2's lander had crashed, or made a hard arriving, on the Moon's surface due to its high speed.

·         In any case, its orbiter is working well overall and this will speak with Chandrayaan-3 lander.


·         It was India's third lunar mission and second effort to accomplish a delicate arriving on the moon's surface.

·         Launched: July 14, 2023.


·         To exhibit Protected and Delicate Arriving on Lunar Surface

·         To exhibit Meanderer wandering on the moon

·         To direct In-situ logical analyses.

·         It comprises of a native Lander module (LM), Drive module (PM) and a Meanderer with a goal of creating and exhibiting new innovations expected for Interplanetary missions.

What is the Chandrayaan-3 Drive Module?

·         Chandrayaan-3: It used a lightweight Impetus Module for the lander's excursion to the Moon rather than a total orbiter.

·         SpectroPolarimetry of Tenable Planet Earth (SHAPE): The Chandrayaan-3 impetus module conveyed a solitary instrument called SHAPE.

·         It was an exploratory payload intended to concentrate on Earth's attributes that make it livable, meaning to recognize tenable exoplanets.

·         Pragyaan Meanderer: The drive module isolated from the lander, which conveyed the Pragyaan meanderer. It was expected to circle the Moon for six extra months, with SHAPE noticing Earth.


·         India remains near the precarious edge of dispensing with instinctive leishmaniasis, ordinarily known as kala azar. With an obvious decrease in revealed cases and passings, the country has verged on gathering the disposal target set by the World Wellbeing Association (WHO).

·         Bangladesh, India's neighbor, was the primary nation approved by the WHO for killing kala azar as a general medical condition.

What is Kala-Azar?


·         Instinctive leishmaniasis usually known as kala-azar, is a sluggish advancing native illness brought about by a protozoan parasite of variety Leishmania.

·         It is otherwise called Dark Fever or Dumdum Fever.

·         In India Leishmania donovani is the main parasite causing this illness.

Transmission and Side effects:

·         It is communicated by sandflies. Sandflies of the sort Phlebotomus argentipes are the main known vectors of kala-azar in India.

·         It causes fever, weight reduction, and spleen and liver broadening. Whenever left untreated, it tends to be lethal in 95% of cases.

Kept Cases in India:

·         India reported 530 cases and four passings in 2023, a downfall from earlier years.

·         Furthermore, there were 286 instances of post-kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL).

Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL):

·         This condition emerges when Leishmania donovani penetrates and flourishes inside skin cells, bringing about the arrangement of skin sores.

·         In certain examples of kala-azar, PKDL arises after treatment, yet presently it is accepted that PKDL could happen without going through the instinctive stage. In any case, more information is expected to comprehend how PKDL creates.

·         The instinctive stage alludes to the underlying period of instinctive leishmaniasis (kala-azar), where the parasite influences interior organs.


·         In India, the essential treatment for kala-azar includes directing injectable liposomal amphotericin B.

·         For PKDL, the standard treatment comprises of 12 weeks of oral miltefosine, with the measurement changed in view of the patient's age and weight.

Methodologies for End in India:

·         Viable Showering: Thorough checking of indoor leftover showering to control sandfly rearing and sickness spread.

·         Wall Putting: Utilizing Gerrard soil for wall putting to limit sandfly reproducing regions.

·         Treatment Consistence: Guaranteeing finish of PKDL treatment through the ASHA (Licensed Social Wellbeing Dissident) organization.


·         WHO has set an objective of 2030 to wipe out Kala-azar. The WHO's Disregarded Tropical Infections Guide likewise incorporates this objective.

·         Legislature of India sent off a midway supported Kala-azar control Program in 1990-91. The Public Wellbeing Strategy (2002) imagined kala-azar Disposal by 2010 which was reconsidered later to 2015. Presently Kala-azar is focused on for end by 2023 in India.