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·         An examination by the Centre for Research on Energy and Clean Air (CREA) has viewed as under 8% of India's coal-based power plants have introduced the SO2 outflow decrease innovation suggested by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) to keep Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) discharges in line.

·         A study conducted in 2019 by Greenpeace asserts that India is the world's largest SO2 emitter.

What are the Innovations to Diminish SO2 Emanations?

Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD):

·         The removal of sulfide compounds from the exhaust emissions of fossil-fueled power plants is known as FGD.

·         This is finished through the expansion of sponges, which can eliminate up to 95% of the sulfur dioxide from the vent gas.

·         When fossil fuels like coal, oil, natural gas, or wood are burned for heat or power, flue gas is produced.

Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (CFBC)-

·         By simultaneously injecting air and lime for burning, the CFBC Boiler is an environmentally friendly power facility that reduces emissions of pollutants like nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide.

·         When a pressurized fluid (liquid or gas) passes through a medium and causes the solid particles to behave like fluids under certain conditions, the bed of solid particles is said to be fluidized. Fluidization causes the change of the condition of strong particles from static to dynamic.

What were the study's most important findings?

·         Just a consolidated limit of 16.5 Gigawatts(GW) of coal plants have introduced FGDs and Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (CFBC) boilers identical to 5.9 GW across India.

·         According to the CREA analysis, 92% of the country's coal power plants operate without FGDs.

·         The derailment of emission controls from coal-based electricity generation units was largely caused by the blanket extension of the deadline for all coal power plants without MoEF&CC and CPCB checking on their progress.

·         The MoEF&CC presented outflow guidelines in 2015 for controlling PM, SO2, NOx, and Hg (Mercury) emanations.

·         For units in Delhi and the National Capital Region (NCR), the deadline has been extended four times, while it has been extended three times for the majority of units nationwide.

·         India currently has 425 GW of installed energy generation capacity. Coal makes up 48.6 percent of the total installed capacity, followed by gas at 5.9 percent, lignite at 1.6%, and diesel at less than 0.2 percent.

How are power plants categorized for FGD installation?

·         In 2021, the MoEF&CC separated the classes of coal-power plants in view of geology to implement cutoff times.

·         Coal-based power plants within a 10-kilometer radius of the National Capital Region (NCR) and cities with more than a million people fall under Category A.

·         Class B is inside a 10 km range of fundamentally dirtied regions or non-fulfillment urban communities.

·         The remaining plants across the nation are included in Category C.

·         With the longest deadlines, the majority of the country's power plants are in Category C.

·         The independent Center for Research on Energy and Clean Air (CREA) investigates trends, causes, and health effects of air pollution as well as potential solutions.

·         It supports the efforts of governments, businesses, and advocacy groups worldwide to move toward clean energy and clean air by utilizing scientific data, research, and evidence.


·         The Director General of Foreign Trade (DGFT) has issued a notification reversing the "Free" to "Prohibited" status of the onion export policy until March 2024.

·         Onion prices have significantly increased as a result of the current supply shortage brought on by the anticipated lower kharif output in 2023 and the early depletion of stocks for the rabi season in 2022-23.

·         The public authority has likewise reexamined as far as possible for wheat, as far as possible has been divided to 1,000 tons for wholesalers, and for retailers to 5 tons.

Why has the Public authority Prohibited Product of Onion Cost?

Control of prices:

·         The government wants to keep domestic market prices from rising or falling by limiting onion exports.

·         To battle spiraling costs, the Middle had forced a Base Commodity Cost of USD 800 for every ton on onions in October 2023. In August, the government imposed an export duty of forty percent on onions.

·         An export ban helps to stabilize the price of onions, making them more affordable for local consumers. Onions have a long history of experiencing significant price volatility.

Getting Rid of Scarcity:

·         A lack of onions in the country can be caused by things like bad weather, less production, or more demand.

·         The government ensures that the available supply is used to meet domestic demands first by prohibiting exports.

Food safety:

·         Onions are a staple in Indian cooking, and any shortage can influence food security. The government ensures that the population has access to this necessary food item without experiencing shortages or unaffordable prices by reducing exports.

What are the Vital Realities About Onion?

·         Onion is a significant green wares become overall for their culinary purposes and restorative qualities.

·         After China, India is the second largest onion producer.

·         The major onion-producing states are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu.

·         In 2021 and 2022, Madhya Pradesh takes second place with a share of 15.16 percent, followed by Maharashtra with a share of 42.53 percent (3rd Advance Estimate).

Why has the government restricted wheat stocks?

·         The revised stock limits are meant to stop organizations involved in wheat stocking from hoarding. The government intends to discourage artificial scarcity and ensure a fair distribution of wheat among various stakeholders by imposing stricter limits.

·         The imbalance between supply and demand that results from excessive hoarding can have a negative impact on consumers and cause price fluctuations.

·         The availability of sufficient quantities on the market to meet the nation's food requirements is ensured by regulating wheat stocks. By preventing food shortages and ensuring that consumers have access to this essential food, it contributes to food security.


What is the current situation regarding the nationwide distribution of wheat?

·         After China, India is the world's second-largest wheat producer. However, it only contributes less than 1% of global wheat trade. It keeps a lot of it to give poor people free food.

·         Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, and Gujarat are India's major wheat-growing states.

·         Major Destinations for Export (2022-23): Bangladesh, Indonesia, Korea Rep.


·         The country's initiatives to address mental health issues have been made clear by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.

What initiatives in mental health are highlighted?

Public Emotional well-being System (NMHP):

·         Initiated in 1982 and reorganized in 2003, the NMHP aims to upgrade psychiatric wings in medical facilities and modernize mental health facilities.

·         Additionally, the District Mental Health Programme (DMHP) has focused on primary healthcare-level community mental health services in 716 districts since 1996.

·         At community health and primary health centers, DMHP provides outpatient services, counseling, psychosocial interventions, and support for severe mental disorders.

·         They all come together to form a comprehensive plan for mental health care in India.

Program for Telemental Health in the Nation:

·         In order to further expand nationwide access to high-quality mental health counseling and care, NTMHP was launched in October 2022.

·         The National Apex Centre for Tele MANAS's coordination of activities across India is the National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS) in Bengaluru.

·         25 States/UTs have laid out 36 Tele Psychological well-being and Business as usual Expansion Frameworks (MANAS) Cells for broadening psychological well-being administrations.

·         Taking care of 63,806 calls made to the helpline number in total.

Collaboration Between iGOT-Diksha and NIMHANS:

·         Through the (iGOT)-Diksha platform, NIMHANS provides psychosocial support and training.

·         NIMHANS offers health care workers online training on the (iGOT)-Diksha platform.

Ayushman Bharat - HWC Plan:

·         The Ayushman Bharat - Wellbeing and Health Focuses (Stomach muscle HWCs) are essential for the Ayushman Bharat Program.

·         Preventive, curative, rehabilitative, and palliative care (a specialized medical approach that aims to improve the quality of life for people with serious illnesses) are among the services that the program aims to provide.

·         Functional rules on Mental, Neurological, and substance use issues (MNS) at Wellbeing and Health Focuses (HWC) have been delivered under the ambit of Ayushman Bharat.

Tending to Pandemic-Instigated Emotional wellness Difficulties:

·         A 24-hour helpline that provides psychosocial support to various population groups has been established by the government.


·         The Food and Agribusiness organisation (FAO) of the Assembled Countries has sent off the Asia-Pacific Provincial Outline of Food Security and Nourishment 2023: According to Statistics and Trends, 74.1 percent of Indians would not be able to afford a healthy diet in 2021.

What are the Report's Most Important Highlights?


·         In the Asia-Pacific region, the rate of undernourishment fell to 8.4% in 2022 from 8.8% the previous year. This represents approximately 12 million fewer people than in 2021, but 55 million more than in 2019, prior to the Covid-19 pandemic.

·         With 370.7 million undernourished individuals, the Asia and the Pacific area addresses half of the world's undernourished individuals.

·         Nearly 314 million people in Southern Asia suffer from malnutrition. This addresses 85 % of undernourished individuals in the Asia and the Pacific area.

·         There are all the more seriously food uncertain people in Southern Asia than some other subregions.

·         Except for Eastern Asia, women tend to be more food insecure than men across the subregions.


·         Unaffordability of a Healthy Diet: In 2020, 76.2 percent of Indians were unable to afford a healthy diet, up from 74.1 percent in 2021.

·         Comparative Analysis with Other Countries: Pakistan had 82.2% and Bangladesh had 66.1% of their populaces confronting hardships in getting to good food.

·         Regional Food Security and Nutrition: India's population is malnourished by 16.6%.

Since 2015, the global prevalence of moderate, severe, and severe food insecurity has decreased in India.

·         Youngsters' Wellbeing: 31.7 percent of children under the age of five were stunted, and 18.7 percent of those children were wasting, or having a weight that was too low for their height.

·         Under 5% is the WHO's global nutrition target for childhood wasting.

·         Poor nutrition and maternal health, inadequate feeding practices for infants and young children, and persistent infections in conjunction with a variety of other factors lead to stunted growth and development.

·         Ladies' Wellbeing: 53% of the country's ladies matured between 15 to 49 had pallor, which was the biggest commonness rate in India in 2019.

·         Women's health and well-being are negatively impacted by anemia, as is the likelihood of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes.

·         Weight and Nourishment Pointers: The FAO estimates that as of the year 2000, 1.6% of adults in the nation were obese. By 2016, the percentage had increased to 3.9%.

·         Select Breastfeeding: India has increased the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding among infants between the ages of 0 and 5 months to 63.7%, which is higher than the global prevalence of 47.7%.

·         India has the most noteworthy pervasiveness of low birthweight in the district (27.4%), trailed by Bangladesh and Nepal.

What is the Food and Farming Association?


·         The United Nations' FAO is a specialized agency that leads international efforts to end hunger.

·         World Food Day is commended consistently all over the planet on sixteenth October. The day is commended to stamp the commemoration of the establishing of the FAO in 1945.

·         It is based in Rome (Italy) and is one of the UN agencies that provide food aid. The World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) are its sister organizations.


·         The Global Status Report on Road Safety 2023, published by the World Health Organization (WHO), provides important information about road traffic fatalities and safety worldwide.

What are the Report's Most Important Highlights?

Fatalities in Car Traffic:

·         Between 2010 and 2021, the number of people who died as a result of traffic accidents worldwide decreased by 5%, to 1.19 million annually.

·         During this time, 108 UN member nations reported a decrease in road traffic fatalities.

·         The number of fatalities in India increased by 15% from 1.34 lakh in 2010 to 1.54 lakh in 2021.

States with Significant Decreases:

·         Over 50% of road traffic fatalities were reduced in ten nations: Venezuela, Belarus, Brunei Darussalam, Denmark, Japan, Lithuania, Norway, the Russian Federation, Trinidad and Tobago, and the United Arab Emirates

·         Thirty-five additional nations made significant progress, reducing deaths by 30 to 50 percent.

Distribution of Deaths by Region:

·         WHO's South-East Asia Region was responsible for 28%, the Western Pacific Region for 25%, the African Region for 19%, the Americas Region for 12%, the Eastern Mediterranean Region for 11%, and Europe for 5% of all road traffic deaths worldwide.

·         Despite having only 1% of the world's automobiles, low- and middle-income nations bear a disproportionate burden, with 90% of deaths occurring in these nations.

Road Users Who Are at Risk:

·         53% of all street traffic fatalities are weak street clients, including walkers (23%), riders of fueled two-and three-wheelers (21%), cyclists (6%), and clients of miniature portability gadgets (3%).

·         Between 2010 and 2021, cyclist deaths increased by nearly 20% to 71,000, while pedestrian deaths increased by 3% to 274,000.

·         However, car and other four-wheeled light vehicle occupant deaths decreased slightly, accounting for 30% of global fatalities.

Policies and safety standards are moving forward:

·         While 140 countries, or two-thirds of UN Member States, have laws that meet WHO best practice for at least one of these risk factors, only six countries have laws that meet WHO best practice for all risk factors (speeding, drinking and driving, and using motorcycle helmets, seatbelts, and child restraints).

·         Only a small number of nations have laws that mandate safety inspections for motorists and cover key vehicle safety features.

Call for Activity:

·         By 2030, the world's motor vehicle fleet is expected to double, necessitating strict safety regulations and infrastructure enhancements.

·         The goal of halving the number of people killed in traffic accidents by 2030 set by the United Nations Decade of Action 2021–2030 is outlined in the report.

What are the Drives Connected with Street Wellbeing?


Declaration of Brasilia on Road Safety (2015):

·         At the second Global High-Level Conference on Road Safety in Brazil, the declaration was signed. The Declaration was signed by India.

·         The nations intend to accomplish Economical Improvement Objective 3.6 i.e., to divide the quantity of worldwide passings and wounds from street auto collisions by 2030.

Action Plan for Road Safety from 2021 to 2030:

·         The ambitious goal of preventing at least 50% of deaths and injuries caused by traffic accidents by 2030 was adopted by the UN General Assembly in the resolution "Improving global road safety."

·         By emphasizing the significance of a comprehensive approach to road safety, the Global Plan adheres to the Stockholm Declaration.

Engine Vehicles Change Act, 2019:

·         The Act increases the penalties for traffic violations, vehicle defects, driving while underage, and other offenses.

·         It establishes a Motor Vehicle Accident Fund that mandates insurance coverage for certain kinds of accidents for all road users in India.

·         It also calls for the Central Government to establish a National Road Safety Board.

The 2007 Carriage by Road Act:

·         The Act regulates common carriers by limiting their liability and requiring them to declare the value of the goods they deliver to determine their liability for loss or damage caused by themselves, their servants, or agents' negligence or criminal acts, as well as for related or incidental matters.

The Land and Traffic Control of National Highways Act of 2000:

·         Control of land within the National Highways, right of way, and traffic moving along the National Highways, as well as the removal of unauthorized occupation thereon, are all governed by the Act.

Indian National Highways Authority Act of 1998:

·         The Act establishes a body to be responsible for the creation, upkeep, and management of NHs as well as any related or unrelated issues.



·         In 2019, the Supreme Court unanimously upheld the Centre's abrogation of Article 370 and recommended the establishment of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) to investigate alleged human rights violations in Jammu & Kashmir by both state and non-state actors.

What exactly is a TRC (Truth and Reconciliation Commission)?


·         An official mechanism for not only acknowledging but also disclosing wrongdoings committed by a government or, in some cases, non-state actors is referred to as a Truth and Reconciliation Commission, which is also referred to as a "truth and justice commission" or simply a "truth commission."


·         Reality commission is one that is centered around the past, as opposed to in continuous occasions.

·         It investigates a sequence of events that occurred over time.

·         The commission connects straightforwardly and extensively with the impacted populace, gathering data on their encounters;

·         It is a temporary body whose goal is to produce a final report.

The state under review has given the commission official permission or authority.


Which Countries have Proactively Laid out TRC?

·         The two most popular and most noteworthy commissions are viewed as set up in South Africa, Australia and Canada.

·         Truth commissions have been established in Sri Lanka and Nepal in India's neighborhood.

·         In 1995, President Nelson Mandela's first post-apartheid government in South Africa established a TRC to discover the truth about human rights abuses during apartheid.

·         Article 370 The Indian constitution gave Jammu and Kashmir, a region that India, Pakistan, and China disagree with, special status.

·         It was written by N Gopalaswami Ayyangar, who was a member of the Constituent Assembly of India. In 1949, it was added as a "temporary provision" to the constitution.

·         With the exception of communications, defense, and foreign policy, it gave the state its own constitution and flag.

·         It was based on the terms of Hari Singh, the ruler of Jammu and Kashmir, signing the Instrument of Accession in 1947 to join India after Pakistan invaded.